# Accessibility

## Overview

On this page, you will find our latest documentation about the accessibility features in the Desmos calculators and classroom activities, including how to emboss graphs and read and write equations in Braille. For a quick overview of accessibility in the Desmos calculators, visit the help center accessibility page.

### Why Accessibility is Important

Our mission at Desmos is to help every student learn math and love learning math. Our graphing calculator is used by millions of students all around the world, and we'd like to see that use expand to all students, including those with physical and cognitive disabilities.

The Desmos websites and software have been written to conform to the WCAG 2.1 accessibility guidelines. Examples include a robust set of keyboard shortcuts in our calculators and classroom activities, respecting font-size settings of low vision users, ensuring that our colors have sufficient contrast, providing screen reader and Braille access to our equation editor, and making graphs accessible to fully blind students via audio and tactile output.

Our WCAG 2.1 Compliance Spreadsheet is available for parties interested in a more systematic breakdown of how we have aimed to satisfy each WCAG criterion. Accessible design is an on-going process, and we realize that no system is perfect. Please email us at accessibility@desmos.com with any questions, comments, or suggestions for improvement. For other support questions, please email support@desmos.com.

### Supported Browsers

The Desmos tools are regularly tested with the most recent editions of ChromeVox, JAWS For Windows, Narrator, NVDA, Talkback, and VoiceOver in Chrome, Edge, Firefox, and Safari. As operating systems, screen access software, and web browser technologies are constantly evolving, we cannot recommend specific versions. As a rule of thumb, if the device's software has been updated within the past 18 months, it is likely fully supported. For additional details, please refer to our browser support policy.

Before you use the calculators or classroom activities, please read the Windows, Mac, iPhone and iPad, Android, or Chromebook instructions below to ensure your screen reader is properly configured.

### Windows Instructions

Here are important tips for using the Desmos Graphing Calculator with JAWS, NVDA, and Microsoft Narrator.

#### JAWS for Windows

JAWS may be set to use either the INSERT or CAPSLOCK key as its primary command modifier. The following discussion will mention only the JAWS key, which may be assumed to be either of these modifiers.

If you require spoken output from Desmos and use JAWS 2018 or newer, please ensure that its "Speech On Demand" mode is set to "Full Speech." This is especially important for users of ZoomText Fusion 2018 which leverages JAWS to provide speech and Braille support. To cycle through the various "Speech On Demand" options, press JAWS + SPACE, S.

When the virtual PC cursor is active in JAWS, you can use the arrow keys and other single-letter commands to browse a web page. When off (such as when Forms Mode is active), all keyboard input passes through to the browser which is needed to enter expressions into the calculators. JAWS has a few ways to turn the virtual PC cursor on and off (such as entering Forms Mode). However, to keep things simple we recommend pressing JAWS + Z. Alternatively, set the Automatic Forms Mode setting to "semi-auto" to have the virtual PC cursor disengage when appropriate.

Note that if you wish to re-enter virtual PC cursor mode while you are interacting with the calculator's expression list, press the virtual PC cursor command twice.

Because the Desmos equation editing component provides its own verbal output, we recommend disabling keyboard echo completely. To do this from anywhere while JAWS is running, press JAWS + 2 until "none" is spoken. Alternatively, key echo can be changed within the JAWS Settings Center.

If any Desmos-specific commands conflict with the screen reader, use the latter's pass-through command before pressing the Desmos shortcut. In this instance, press JAWS + 3.

The calculator often times attempts to speak evaluations or whether the current equation has a graph while you type. It is possible that this speech could become chopped off if JAWS tutor messages are active. If you experience chopped off speech, we suggest going to JAWS → Options → Basics and setting tutor messages to either "Turn Off Menu and Control Help" or "Announce Custom Messages Only."

Depending on the active voice profile, JAWS may speak extraneous symbols as you work with the calculator. As Desmos voices pertinent symbols on its own, we recommend setting the punctuation level to "some." These settings may be changed in Options → Voices → Voice Adjustment.

If you use a Braille display, we recommend making the following additional changes:

1. Press JAWS + 6 to open Settings Center.
2. Navigate to Braille → General → Translation.
3. Press the DOWN ARROW until Output is selected.
4. Press SPACE until "Computer Braille" is selected. If "Computer Braille" is not available, you will also need to choose a language with a Computer Braille table, such as "English United States."
5. Optionally, to minimize the amount of extra information shown on the display (such as status cells), navigate to Braille → General → Braille Mode, and press SPACE until "Line" is selected.
6. Press ALT + F4 to close Settings Center.

Depending on the Braille display in use, there may be a keyboard shortcut available to change the output translation table. Consult the "JAWS and Refreshable Braille" book in the JAWS help system for more information.

All JAWS keyboard shortcuts are available on the Freedom Scientific website.

#### NVDA

NVDA may be set to use either the INSERT or CAPSLOCK key as its primary command modifier. The following discussion will mention only the NVDA key, which may be assumed to be either of these modifiers.

When working with online web applications, a critical NVDA command is NVDA + SPACE, which toggles browse mode on and off. When on, use the arrow keys and other single-letter commands to browse the page. When off, all keyboard input passes through to the browser which is needed to enter expressions into the calculators.

Note that if you wish to re-enter browse mode while you are interacting with the calculator's expression list, press CTRL + NVDA + SPACE.

Because the Desmos equation editing component provides its own verbal output, we recommend disabling keyboard echo completely. To do this while NVDA is running, press NVDA + 2 until character echo is off, and likewise NVDA + 3 for words. You can also find the options for speaking typed characters and words in the Keyboard tab of the NVDA Settings dialog.

If any Desmos-specific commands conflict with those of the screen reader, issue the pass-through command before pressing the Desmos shortcut. In this instance, use NVDA + F2.

Depending on the active voice, NVDA may speak extraneous characters as you work with the calculator. As Desmos voices pertinent symbols on its own, we recommend setting the punctuation level to "some." These settings may be changed in Preferences → Punctuation → Symbol Pronunciation from the NVDA main menu.

If you use a Braille display, we recommend making the following additional changes:

1. Press NVDA + N to open the NVDA menu.
2. Navigate to Preferences → Settings.
3. Select the "Braille" group.
4. Ensure that the input and output tables are set to "English, U.S. 6-Dot Computer Braille" or "English, U.S. 8-Dot Computer Braille."
5. Press Enter to close the Settings dialog.

Depending on the Braille display in use, there may be a keyboard shortcut available to change the input and output translation tables. Consult the "Supported Braille Displays" section of the NVDA Commands Quick Reference document for details.

All NVDA keyboard shortcuts are available on the NV-Access website.

#### Narrator

Narrator may be set to use either the INSERT or CAPSLOCK key as its primary command modifier. The following discussion will mention only the NARRATOR key, which may be assumed to be either of these modifiers.

Microsoft Narrator is a screen reader included with computers running the Windows operating system. The following information assumes you are using Narrator along with Microsoft Edge or Google Chrome in, at a minimum, Windows 10 19H1 (build 1903).

When working with online web applications, a critical Narrator command is NARRATOR + SPACE, which toggles Scan mode on and off. When on, use the arrow keys and other single-letter commands to browse the page. When off, all keyboard input passes through to the browser which is needed to enter expressions into the calculators.

Because the Desmos equation editing component provides its own verbal output, we advise disabling character reading completely. In this instance, press NARRATOR + 2 until character reading is off. You can also find the options for typing feedback in the "Change What You Hear When Typing" group of the Narrator Settings window (accessible by pressing CTRL + WINDOWS + N.

If any Desmos-specific commands conflict with those of the screen reader, issue the pass-through command before pressing the Desmos shortcut. In Narrator, use NARRATOR + 3.

If you use a Braille display, we recommend making the following additional changes:

1. Press CTRL + WINDOWS + N to open the Narrator settings window.
2. Navigate to the Braille options.
3. Ensure the input and output languages are set to English and that the input and output tables are configured for "Computer Braille (8-dot)."
4. Press ALT + F4 to close the Settings window.

Depending on the Braille display in use, there may be a keyboard shortcut available to change the input and output translation tables. Consult the "Using Narrator with Braille" section of the Narrator user's guide for details.

All Microsoft Narrator commands are available on the Complete Guide to Narrator page on the Microsoft website.

### Apple Mac Instructions

VoiceOver may be set to use either the Ctrl + Option or CAPSLOCK key as its primary command modifier. The following discussion will mention only the VO key, which may be assumed to be either of these.

VoiceOver is Apple's built-in screen reader for the Mac. To enable and disable VoiceOver, press COMMAND + F5. For some newer Macs, which swap the F keys with system functions, you may need to press COMMAND + Fn + F5 instead. If your Mac has no function keys but instead utilizes the touch bar, press and hold COMMAND and triple-tap the Touch ID sensor located in the upper right corner of the computer.

Out of the box, VoiceOver speaks a great deal of information, including hints on how to access common user interface elements (such as text boxes, buttons, and menus). These hints can be distracting when using the calculator, and consequently we recommend disabling them. To do so, open the VoiceOver Utility, navigate to the Verbosity group, and uncheck the option in the Hints tab. Press VO + F8 to open VoiceOver Utility while VoiceOver is on.

While the VoiceOver utility is open, you may also wish to change the speaking of numbers from digits to words, set your typing echo to say nothing, and set the active punctuation level to "some." These options are found in the Verbosity group under the Text tab. As the calculator provides keyboard echo already, having VoiceOver announce keystrokes along with the calculator will cause each symbol to be spoken twice. Speaking numbers as words will cause the number 100 to be voiced as "one hundred" instead of "one zero zero." Finally, as Desmos sends pertinent symbols to VoiceOver, reducing the amount of punctuation will ensure it does not speak extraneous characters as you work.

We recommend disabling Quick Nav to make it easier to interact with the calculator. This can be accomplished in the Commanders group of the VoiceOver utility in the Quick Nav tab. Alternatively, press LEFT ARROW and RIGHT ARROW simultaneously to toggle Quick Nav on the fly.

When testing on Safari with VoiceOver enabled, use TAB and SHIFT + TAB to move among the main controls of the page. You will discover that Tabbing through a page with VoiceOver turned off yields very different results compared to doing so while the screen reader is on. To cause Tab to function in a more standard manner, open Safari's preferences, navigate to the Advanced tab, and check the box labeled, "Press Tab to highlight each item on a web page." Chrome and Firefox on macOS behave normally in regards to Tab and therefore do not have comparable settings.

If you use a Braille display, we recommend making the following additional changes:

1. Ensure that your Mac is running High Sierra (10.13) or newer.
2. Press VO + F8 to open the VoiceOver Utility.
3. Select the Braille category, and navigate to the Layout tab.
4. Verify that "Show Contracted Braille" and "Use Automatic Braille Translation" are unchecked, and "Show 8-Dot Braille" is checked.
5. Press COMMAND + W to close the VoiceOver Utility.

Depending on the Braille display in use, there may be a keyboard shortcut available to toggle the above options from the display. See "Chapter 10. Using Braille Displays" in Apple’s VoiceOver documentation for more information.

For more information on VoiceOver and how to navigate with it, see Apple's documentation.

### Apple iPhone and iPad Instructions

VoiceOver is Apple's built-in screen reader on the iPhone and iPad. It can be activated or deactivated in three ways:

1. Tapping the VoiceOver toggle switch located in Settings → Accessibility → VoiceOver.
2. Instructing Siri to turn VoiceOver on or off.
3. Triple-clicking the home button (if available) or the power button (if not).

VoiceOver's default speech settings should be adequate for most users. However, we recommend turning "Speak Hints" off and setting "Punctuation Level" to some. Both selections can be found under Settings → Accessibility → VoiceOver → Verbosity. We also strongly suggest using an external Bluetooth keyboard if possible.

If a VoiceOver user is accessing Desmos with a Bluetooth keyboard, we recommend disabling Quick Nav. This can be accomplished by pressing LEFT ARROW and RIGHT ARROW simultaneously.

If you use a Braille display, we recommend making the following additional changes:

1. Open Settings → Accessibility → VoiceOver → Braille.
2. Ensure that both input and output modes are set to "8-dot" to avoid possible translation errors. If the display includes a Perkins-style keyboard, you may also press SPACE and DOTS 1-2-4-5 to cycle through the output modes, and SPACE and DOTS 2-3-6 to cycle through input modes from anywhere in iOS.
3. If the display length is small, users may wish to disable "General" and "Text" status cells.

More information about VoiceOver is available on Apple's website, along with a list of common Braille display commands.

### Android Instructions

TalkBack is the screen reader which ships with most Android devices. It can be turned on or off in two ways:

1. Pressing and holding both volume keys for three seconds.
2. Manually activating Talkback in Settings → Accessibility → TalkBack.

TalkBack's default settings should be adequate for the majority of users. Depending on the text-to-speech engine in use, you may wish to adjust its punctuation levels found in Settings → Accessibility → Text to Speech Output. We also strongly suggest using an external Bluetooth keyboard if possible.

At the time of writing, Android's Braille capabilities are not reliable enough for everyday usage. We monitor Android's development and will update this section when the situation improves.

### Chromebook Instructions

ChromeVox is a screen reader available as an extension for Chrome, and it is built into Chrome OS. To turn ChromeVox on and off, press CTRL + ALT + Z.

Because the calculator provides its own verbal output, we advise disabling spoken feedback (earcons) completely. To do this from anywhere, press Search + A, then E.

If you use a Braille display, we recommend making the following additional changes:

1. Connect the display to the ChromeBook via USB.
2. Press Search + O, then O.
3. While holding Search, press RIGHT ARROW until you hear "Switch to 6-Dot Braille" or "Switch to 8-Dot Braille."
4. Press Enter to accept the change.
5. Press CTRL + W to close the settings window.

## Using the Calculators

All right. Screen reader configured? You’re ready to start entering math! Our equation editor is powered by a technology called MathQuill. You can type things like y=2x^2, 2/3x-4y=7, sin(x), anything! You can also enter evaluable expressions, like 2^3 or 4+5, and the calculator will output the answer. When writing in MathQuill, TAB moves out of a block. In a fraction, UP ARROW and DOWN ARROW move between the numerator and denominator. Home and End move to the beginning and end of the current block, and CTRL + Home or End move to the beginning and end of the active expression.

We also provide an onscreen keypad suitable for entering equations with a touch-based device or mouse. While the keypad has been given appropriate ARIA markup, it is not included in the calculator's tab order. This decision was made deliberately. Typing an equation (such as sin(x)) into the expression is far more efficient than using TAB to navigate to each button. Additionally, this allows the keypad keys to be located on touch-based devices or when using screen enlargement software (such as MAGic and ZoomText). View a full list of our supported functions View a full list of our supported functions.

For a quick reminder of these or any other keyboard shortcuts, use the keyboard shortcuts link in the calculator's help menu or press CTRL + / on Windows or COMMAND + / on Mac.

MathQuill also provides the following screen reader-specific hotkeys for Windows and Mac.

Function Windows/ChromeOS Shortcut Mac Shortcut
Move to Previous Expression UP ARROW or SHIFT + TAB UP ARROW or SHIFT + TAB
Move to Next Expression DOWN ARROW or TAB DOWN ARROW or TAB
Remove Selected Empty Expression Backspace Delete
Previous Character LEFT ARROW LEFT ARROW
Next Character RIGHT ARROW RIGHT ARROW
Move to Numerator Within Fraction UP ARROW UP ARROW
Move to Denominator Within Fraction DOWN ARROW DOWN ARROW
Exit Current Block TAB TAB
Beginning of Current Block Home Fn + LEFT ARROW
End of Current Block End Fn + RIGHT ARROW
Beginning of Current Expression CTRL + Home CTRL + Fn + LEFT ARROW
End of Current Expression CTRL + End CTRL + Fn + RIGHT ARROW
Increase Selection Left SHIFT + LEFT ARROW SHIFT + LEFT ARROW
Increase Selection Right SHIFT + RIGHT ARROW SHIFT + RIGHT ARROW
Delete Selection Backspace Delete
Select All CTRL + A COMMAND + A
Speak Parent Block CTRL + ALT + UP ARROW CTRL + OPTION + UP ARROW
Speak Focused Block CTRL + ALT + DOWN ARROW CTRL + OPTION + DOWN ARROW
Speak Left-Adjacent Block CTRL + ALT + LEFT ARROW CTRL + OPTION + LEFT ARROW
Speak Right-Adjacent Block CTRL + ALT + RIGHT ARROW CTRL + OPTION + RIGHT ARROW
Speak Selection CTRL + ALT + SHIFT + DOWN ARROW CTRL + OPTION + SHIFT + DOWN ARROW
Speak Answer CTRL + ALT + = CTRL + OPTION + SHIFT + RIGHT ARROW

### Typing Symbols

The calculator includes methods for entering special types of symbols and expressions. We have included some of the most common symbols below.

Function Shortcut
Superscript ^ (usually SHIFT + 6)
Subscript _ (usually SHIFT + _)
$$<$$ =
$$>$$ =
Prime '
Fraction f r a c
s q r t
c b r t
Nth Root n t h r o o t
s u m
i n t
p r od
π p i
θ t h e t a
- $$>$$

More details regarding these and other functions are available on the Desmos Help Center.

### Table Entry

Dive deeper into data with tables! You can enter data manually or copy and paste data from an existing spreadsheet. Note that when copying and pasting a table from a spreadsheet, the column header titles will not transfer and there is a maximum of 50 rows. You can add a new table by selecting Table in the Add Item menu, or by pressing CTRL + ALT + T on Windows or CTRL + COMMAND + T on Mac.

Function Windows/ChromeOS Shortcut Mac Shortcut
Previous Cell SHIFT + TAB SHIFT + TAB
Next Cell TAB TAB
Previous Row UP ARROW UP ARROW
Next Row DOWN ARROW DOWN ARROW
Previous Column LEFT ARROW LEFT ARROW
Next Column RIGHT ARROW RIGHT ARROW
First Row in Column CTRL + UP ARROW CTRL + UP ARROW
Last Row in Column CTRL + DOWN ARROW CTRL + DOWN ARROW
First Column in Row CTRL + LEFT ARROW CTRL + LEFT ARROW
Last Column in Row CTRL + RIGHT ARROW CTRL + RIGHT ARROW
Speak Column Header CTRL + H CTRL + H

### Sliders

When an expression contains free variables, Desmos will offer to define them as sliders. To try it for yourself, type $$y=mx+b$$ and then press Enter to add sliders for $$m$$ and $$b$$ below the expression. Now, by changing the values of $$m$$ and $$b$$, you can easily manipulate the graph of $$y=mx+b$$. Use TAB and the keyboard shortcuts below to adjust each slider when its handle is focused.

Function Windows/ChromeOS Shortcut Mac Shortcut
Decreased Value LEFT ARROW LEFT ARROW
Decreased Value by Larger Increment Page Down Fn + DOWN ARROW
Increase Value RIGHT ARROW RIGHT ARROW
Increase Value by Larger Increment Page Up Fn + UP ARROW
Lowest Value HOME Fn + LEFT ARROW
Highest Value END Fn + RIGHT ARROW

### Audio Trace for Expressions with a Graph

Audio trace mode allows someone to explore a graph by sound rather than sight. It is primarily intended for students who are blind or visually impaired who wish to discover how one or more curves are graphed on the screen. If an expression has a graph, you can hear a basic summary with ALT + S (or OPTION + S on a Mac). Similarly, you can hear a description of the graph axes (including whether the X and Y axes are displayed, their ranges and labels if appropriate, the presence of grid lines, etc) by pressing ALT + G (or OPTION + G on a Mac). Activate audio trace mode with ALT + T (or OPTION + T on a Mac). Press ALT + T a second time to deactivate audio trace. Setting focus to a different part of the web page will also deactivate audio trace, so there is no need to worry about being stuck in this mode.

If you are using a device where a hardware keyboard is unavailable (such as an iPhone or iPad), it is also possible to activate audio trace mode via the audio trace toggle located in the on-screen Desmos keypad. Once audio trace is active, a keypad will appear to allow you to hear the graph, navigate points and curves, and adjust the system's playback volume and speed. These functions are described in more detail in the following paragraphs.

When listening to a graph through audio trace, changes in the stereo field reflect the value of the independent variable when it is x, and changes in the pitch reflect the dependent variable. Static will also be heard along with the tone when the dependent variable is less than 0, or by itself if the variable is undefined. In addition, the timbre of the tone changes when the independent variable is less than or greater than 0. A brief "pop" will sound whenever two curves intersect.

For example, consider the equation for a simple sine curve: y=sin(x). When audio trace is active, notice how the tone being played moves from left to right as x increases, and the tone's pitch rises and falls as the y-value changes. Observe how the resonance of the tone morphs once it crosses the X axis, and the static that plays whenever y moves below 0.

When audio trace is active, the following additional keyboard shortcuts are available:

Function Windows/ChromeOS Shortcut Mac Shortcut
Enable or Disable Audio Trace Mode ALT + T OPTION + T
Summarize Selected Curve ALT + S OPTION + S
Describe the Graph Axes ALT + G OPTION + G
Previous Point LEFT ARROW, UP ARROW, or J LEFT ARROW, UP ARROW, or J
Next Point RIGHT ARROW, DOWN ARROW, or L RIGHT ARROW, DOWN ARROW, or L
Next Point of Interest Page Down, TAB, or I Fn + DOWN ARROW, TAB, or I
Previous Point of Interest Page Up, SHIFT + TAB, or K Fn + UP ARROW, SHIFT + TAB, or K
First Point Home or U Fn + LEFT ARROW or U
Last Point End or N Fn + RIGHT ARROW or N
Speak Point of Interest Count P P
Speak X Coordinate X X
Speak Y Coordinate Y Y
Speak Color C C
Speak Branch B B
Speak Type of Selected Point T T
Move to Origin O O
Move to Previous Curve ALT + UP ARROW OPTION + UP ARROW
Move to Next Curve ALT + DOWN ARROW OPTION + DOWN ARROW
Hear Graph H H
Hear Only Branch 1 Through 10 1 - 0 1 - 0
Adjust Playback Speed (1=slowest, 5=fastest) ALT + 1 - 5 OPTION + 1 - 5
Increase Volume V V
Decrease Volume SHIFT + V SHIFT + V
Announce Active Slider Animations A A

#### Slider Trace

When audio trace is active, and an expression contains adjustable factors available via sliders, you can modify their values to hear what effect the changes have on the current equation with the following commands:

Function Windows/ChromeOS Shortcut Mac Shortcut
Toggle Slider Trace Mode S S
Decrease Value of Selected Slider LEFT ARROW or J LEFT ARROW or J
Decrease Value of Selected Slider by Larger Increment Page Down Fn + DOWN ARROW
Increase Value of Selected Slider RIGHT ARROW or L RIGHT ARROW or L
Increase Value of Selected Slider by Larger Increment Page Up Fn + UP ARROW
Move to Lowest Value of Selected Slider Home or U Fn + LEFT ARROW or U
Move to Highest Value of Selected Slider End or N Fn + RIGHT ARROW or N
Select Next Slider DOWN ARROW, TAB, or K DOWN ARROW, TAB, or K
Select Previous Slider UP ARROW, SHIFT + TAB, or I UP ARROW, SHIFT + TAB, or I

For example, take the classic equation for a line: y=mx+b. When audio trace is active, enter slider trace by pressing S, and note that the value of M is set to 1. Pressing H yields an ascending tone which pans from left to right, indicating a line with a positive slope. Next, press the LEFT ARROW twice until M is -1. Pressing H again now results in a descending tone panning from left to right, indicating a line with negative slope.

#### Audio Trace Examples

The following examples demonstrate a few different types of equations and how they are rendered in audio trace. In each recording, the equation is read aloud followed by the sound of the graph.

### $$y=x$$

Notice how the pitch of the tone increases as it moves from left to right, indicating a positive slope, and the static that is added when the line is below the X axis. Open this graph in the calculator.

### $$y=-x$$

Notice how the pitch of the tone decreases as it moves from left to right, indicating a negative slope, and the static that is added when the line is below the X axis. Open this graph in the calculator.

### $$y=sin(x)$$

Notice how the pitch of the tone regularly increases and decreases as it moves from left to right, indicating a periodic function, and the static that plays each time the line moves below the X axis. Open this graph in the calculator.

### $$y={x}^2$$

Notice how the tone starts high, drops down, and raises as it moves from left to right, indicating a parabolic curve. Open this graph in the calculator.

### $${x}^2+{y}^2=9$$

This is the equation for a circle. Unlike the previous examples, this equation has two solutions which are played in sequence. First, from left to right, you will hear the tone move down, then up, which is the lower half of the circle. Next, from left to right, you hear a tone moving up, then down, indicating the top half of the circle. We welcome feedback on how we might better convey multi-solution graphs through sound. Open this graph in the calculator.

### Interactive Points and Images in a Graph

In addition to traditional fixed-point graphs, Desmos supports adding points and images that can be moved around a graph with the mouse or keyboard. The most accessible method for creating a movable point from the keyboard is to define a variable whose value is a coordinate pair, such as $$p=(1,1)$$ or $$a=(b,c)$$.

It is also possible to navigate to nonmovable points if they are associated with a label such as in this sample graph.

When one or more interactive points or draggable images have been created, you can use the following keyboard shortcuts to interact with them:

Function Windows/ChromeOS Shortcut Mac Shortcut
Focus First Interactive Point On Screen CTRL + ALT + P CTRL + COMMAND + P
Go to Next Interactive Point TAB TAB
Go to Previous Interactive Point SHIFT + TAB SHIFT + TAB
Increase X RIGHT ARROW RIGHT ARROW
Decrease X LEFT ARROW LEFT ARROW
Increase Y UP ARROW UP ARROW
Decrease Y DOWN ARROW DOWN ARROW
Increase X by Larger Amount SHIFT + RIGHT ARROW SHIFT + RIGHT ARROW
Decrease X by Larger Amount SHIFT + LEFT ARROW SHIFT + LEFT ARROW
Increase Y by Larger Amount SHIFT + UP ARROW SHIFT + UP ARROW
Decrease Y by Larger Amount SHIFT + DOWN ARROW SHIFT + DOWN ARROW
Speak X Coordinate X X
Speak Y Coordinate Y Y
Speak Label L L
Speak Color (not applicable to draggable images) C C

Note: the distance that a point moves in response to the above keyboard commands will vary depending on your screen size, X/Y limits, and zoom ratio settings. Also be aware that it is technically possible to move a point off the screen. Should this occur, you can move it back on screen so long as you have not navigated away from the point beforehand.

### Common Actions

Desmos provides hotkeys which can be used anywhere within the calculator to aid in managing graphs, adding expressions, and adjusting graph settings.

Function Windows/ChromeOS Shortcut Mac Shortcut
Open Hotkey Shortcut Dialog CTRL + / COMMAND + /
Close a Dialog Esc Esc
Open a Graph CTRL + O COMMAND + O
Save a Graph CTRL + S COMMAND + S
Print a Graph CTRL + P COMMAND + P
Show or Hide the Expression List SHIFT + ALT + E SHIFT + COMMAND + E
Focus the Expression List CTRL + ALT + E CTRL + COMMAND + E
Open Options for the Focused Expression CTRL + SHIFT + O CTRL + SHIFT + O
Delete the Focused Expression CTRL + SHIFT + D CTRL + SHIFT + D
Toggle between Fraction and Decimal Evaluation for the Focused Expression SHIFT + ALT + A SHIFT + COMMAND + A
Toggle between Degrees and Radians ALT + D CTRL + D
Add an Expression CTRL + ALT + X CTRL + COMMAND + X
Add a Note CTRL + ALT + O CTRL + COMMAND + O
Add a Folder CTRL + ALT + F CTRL + COMMAND + F
Collapse the Selected Folder ALT + UP ARROW COMMAND + UP ARROW
Expand the Selected Folder ALT + DOWN ARROW COMMAND + DOWN ARROW
Collapse All Folders ALT + SHIFT + UP ARROW COMMAND + SHIFT + UP ARROW
Expand All Folders ALT + SHIFT + DOWN ARROW COMMAND + SHIFT + DOWN ARROW
Add an Image CTRL + ALT + I CTRL + COMMAND + I
Add a Table CTRL + ALT + T CTRL + COMMAND + T
Undo CTRL + Z COMMAND + Z
Redo CTRL + SHIFT + Z COMMAND + SHIFT + Z
Zoom In ALT + + CTRL + +
Zoom Out ALT + - CTRL + -
Restore Default Zoom ALT + 0 CTRL + 0
Zoom to Fit SHIFT + ALT + Z SHIFT + OPTION + Z
Turn Edit List Mode On or Off CTRL + ALT + D CTRL + OPTION + D
Open or Close the Graph Settings Menu CTRL + ALT + G CTRL + COMMAND + G
Open or Close the Account Menu CTRL + ALT + A CTRL + COMMAND + A
Open or Close the Help Menu CTRL + ALT + H CTRL + COMMAND + H
Open or Close the Language Menu CTRL + ALT + L CTRL + COMMAND + L
Open or Close the Share Menu CTRL + ALT + S CTRL + COMMAND + S

### Embossing Graphs

The Desmos graphing calculator has the ability to export graphs for a Braille embosser which enables a student to feel the graph rather than hear it. Supported embossers include the View Plus Tiger VP Max and the Enabling Technologies Romeo 60 and Juliet 120.

#### Exporting to the View Plus Tiger VP Max

To export a graph for embossing on a Tiger VP Max, first verify that the latest desktop View Plus drivers have been installed. Next:

1. Once a graph has been created, click the Share icon, or press CTRL + ALT + S on Windows, or CTRL + COMMAND + S on a Mac.
2. Select "Export Image."
3. Click the "Size" icon, and select the desired embosser and page size combination from the "Tactile Graphics Embossers" list that appears.
4. If desired, also select which Braille translation mode to use (default is Nemeth).
5. Right-click the graph image and select "Save to Desktop." If you are using Firefox or Chrome, you may opt to use the "Download PNG" button instead.
6. Locate the saved image, right-click it, and select "Print."
7. In the print dialog, set paper size to either 8.5 x 11 or 11.5 x 11 in (depending on the selected embosser option).
8. Click print.

#### Exporting to the Enabling Technologies Romeo 60 and Juliet 120

Before embossing to an Enabling Technologies device, please ensure that Firebird has been installed along with the drivers for your printer. Next:

1. Once a graph has been created, click the Share icon, or press CTRL + ALT + S on Windows, or CTRL + COMMAND + S on a Mac.
2. Select "Export Image."
3. Click the "Size" icon, and select the desired embosser and paper size combination from the "Tactile Graphics Embossers" list that appears.
4. If desired, also select which Braille translation mode to use (default is Nemeth).
5. Right-click the graph image and select "Save to Desktop." If you are using Firefox or Chrome, you may opt to use the "Download PNG" button instead.
6. In Firebird, select File > Open > Image File and open the image you downloaded.
7. Set the paper size to either 8.5 x 11.0 or 11.5 x 11.0 (depending on the selected embosser option).
8. Click the "Edit" button in the right pane.
9. Select File > Emboss in the edit window or press CTRL + E.

When a Braille embosser mode has been selected, it is also possible to download a Braille representation of the expression list by accessing the "Download Braille Equations" button in the export dialog. Be aware that the generated file is designed to be read on an electronic Braille display. Additional formatting may be required prior to sending it to a Braille printer.

## Mobile Apps

You can download the Desmos Graphing Calculator app for Android or iOS. On Android, we recommend devices running at least Android 5.0 with Chrome 54 or newer installed along with an external keyboard to enter expressions and issue commands. The calculator's interface is fully accessible to VoiceOver users running iOS 9 and above, though we recommend at least iOS 11 for the best experience. Like Android, we recommend the use of an external Bluetooth keyboard for the most optimal experience. For more information regarding TalkBack and VoiceOver, refer to Android accessibility information or VoiceOver information. We are still working on mobile accessibility and would love your feedback! Please email your questions and comments to accessibility@desmos.com.

## Using Braille

If you rely on a Braille display, it is possible to read and write equations in Desmos using the two most common mathematical Braille codes in North America: Nemeth and Unified English Braille (UEB). Braille is currently available in our four-function, scientific, and graphing calculators as well as classroom activities. Be aware that your screen reader should be set for Computer Braille input and output to minimize the risk of translation errors. If you have not done so, please configure your screen reader before continuing.

When working with any of the calculators, you can set the active Braille mode between Nemeth, UEB, or off by first opening the settings menu to the right of the expression list and activating the respective buttons inside the Braille group. When inside an activity, the same Braille options may be found by opening the sidebar on the left (which screen readers will announce as "Activity Settings") and opening the "Accessibility Settings" menu.

For a quick overview on using Braille in Desmos, visit the help center accessibility page.

### Six Key Braille Input

Out of the box, the application expects characters you type to come from a connected Braille display. If you would rather write Braille from your computer keyboard and use the display strictly for reading, check the "Six Key Braille Input" option. When it is active, use the Home Row keys (S, D, F, J, K, and L) to enter Braille dots 3, 2, 1, 4, 5, and 6 just as you would on your Braille display or a manual Braille writer.

Once you have selected your desired Braille options, press Esc to close the settings menu. Alternatively, the following keyboard shortcuts may be used:

Function Windows/ChromeOS Shortcut Mac Shortcut
Switch to Nemeth ALT + N CTRL + N
Switch to UEB ALT + U CTRL + U
Switch to Print ALT + Q CTRL + Q
Turning Braille Typing On or Off ATL + 6 CTRL + 6

### Braille in the Calculators

Once your Braille preference has been set, you can enter equations just as you would expect from your Braille display or computer keyboard. As you type, a print version of your equation updates in real-time so that a teacher or sighted partner can follow along. After you have written your equation, press TAB to review the evaluation result (or error if you entered something the calculator could not understand). Press SHIFT + TAB to return to the expression list. To create a new expression, press DOWN ARROW or Enter. Finally, use UP ARROW and DOWN ARROW to move up and down the expression list.

When a Braille input mode has been selected, it is also possible to download a Braille representation of the expression list by accessing the "Download Braille Equations" button in the settings menu in the four-function and scientific calculator, or within the share menu in the graphing calculator. Be aware that the generated file is designed to be read on an electronic Braille display. Additional formatting may be required prior to sending it to a Braille printer.

Check out the Braille examples page for tips on how to type Braille expressions. You can learn more about using Braille in this video:

If you are new to Braille mathematics, we recommend reading through the American Printing House for the Blind tutorials for either Nemeth or UEB.

## Keyboard Shortcuts

The calculators are designed to make all functionality accessible from the keyboard. Select a calculator below to view the keyboard shortcuts.

For those who would prefer to have a hard-copy list of all of the Desmos keyboard commands, we have created print and Braille versions of the Windows and Mac shortcuts as downloadable Microsoft Word and BRF files.

## Classroom Activities

The Desmos Classroom team at Amplify is continually working to make their collection of Classroom Activities accessible to more students. Explore some of the screen reader-friendly activities. To find out more about how to operate some of the specialized components that may be added to an activity visit the Desmos Classroom Accessibility Page.

## Feedback

We are excited with our recent accessibility advances, and we also have more work to do. We would love your feedback on how we can support the best possible graphing experience for visually impaired students. Please email us at accessibility@desmos.com with any questions or comments! For other support questions, please email support@desmos.com.